Turkish Sugar Industry was established in 1926 by the construction of the two sugar factories, Uşak and Alpullu. In order to maintain a dependable future to the Industry and for its development, it was realized that a series of experiments had to be done on the production and processing of sugar beets, some problems of the practice had to be solved and training of the personnel who are working in the different sections of the industry must be done. We may say that, today’s successful view of the industry is depended upon the early realization of research and training.
The Sugar Institute has been founded in 1932 as an “EXPERIMENT AND PLANT PROTECTION LABORATORY” in Uşak under the management of the two German scientists, MM. Moeller and Dr. P. Steiner. The experiments at this laboratory have been continued until 1935 in Uşak with the joint work of German and Turkish scientists under the leadership of Mr. Afif Gediz.
In 1935, when two more sugar factories were erected, the management of these four sugar factories was united under one company as Turkish Sugar Factories Corporation. At the same time the laboratory was moved to Eskişehir, where the new headquarters has been established. Within laboratory, field experiments and plant protection departments were acting separately up to 1951. In that year, these two units have been joined together as “AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES” and the number of the personnel has increased by the participation of new scientists who have completed their postgraduate degrees in foreign countries. During this period there were five departments at the laboratory. These were; Field Experiments, Entomology, Phytopathology Nematology, Soil Survey and Agricultural Chemistry.
As the Industry has developed, the second research unit “TECHNOLOGI CAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES” was established in 1953 by the leadership of Mr. Haydar Nouruzhan in order to solve the processing problems in the sugar factories. Because of the rapid development of the Industry, reorganization of the research units became necessary. For this reason, the two research units have been joined together and formed “SUGAR INSTITUTE” in 1959. Meanwhile, to meet the need of the research personnel in the future, agricultural and chemical engineers were sent to foreign countries for their post graduate studies. They returned to their post in the Institute in 1964. At the same time, construction of a modern research center in Etimesgut­ ANKARA was planned in order to realize the close collaboration with the universities.
The Institute was moved to Etimesgut in January 1965 as two separate research units, namely, “Sugar Beet Research Institute” and “Sugar Technology Research Institute”. These two research units have been reunited under the name of “SUGAR INSTITUTE” in 1967. In the following years some more scientists from different fields and branches have joined to the Institute who has completed their postgraduate studies either in Turkey or in foreign countries.
Sugar Institute is directed by a director under the supervision of General Directorate of the Turkish Sugar Factories Corporation. It consists of Agricultural and Technological Research Divisions and Seed processing factories; in addition to this, there are some subsidiary services.
The Institute is responsible for research, development technical aids, production, training, publication and collaboration with other research organizations both in Turkey and in other countries.
Departments in this division and their activities are given below.
3.1.1. Department of Agronomy
This department is responsible for obtaining maximum benefit from water resources and carry out research works on the determining the optimum and the economical use of irrigation water.
3.1.2. Department of Plant Breeding
The main goal of this department is breeding domestic sugar beet varieties which adapt to the different sugar beet growing areas of the country in terms of ecological and climatic conditions. This department is also responsible for guiding seed policy of the Company. The management of the breeding station is also the responsibility of the department
3.1.3. Department of Entomology
This department surveys the insect pest infested areas, their population, density and the degree of damage on sugar beets and other crops. It also determines the most effective and economical plant protection methods and the application times for these pests. By giving information on the diagnosis and the time of occurrence of the pests, the department guides the plant protection undertaken by the extension services at factory level.
3.1.4. Department of Phytopathology
This department surveys the diseases and weed infected areas, density and the degree of damage on sugar beets and other crops. The department also determines the most effective and economical plant protection methods and the application times for these diseases and weeds. The department guides plant protection control works undertaken by the extension services at factory level, by giving information on the diagnosis and occurrence of the disease and weeds.
3.1.5. Department of Plant Nutrition and Soils
The main aim of this department is to recommend farmers on the fertilization of sugarbeet by determining the fertility level of the soils. In addition to that, department carries out the experiments related to sugar beet fertilization in order to increase the yield and quality of the sugar beets. Irrigation water, feed stuff and fertilizer analyses are also carried out in this department.
3.1.6. Department of Agricultural Mechanization
Improvement, designing and manufacturing of the appropriate agricultural machines and equipments which are used for the production of the sugar beets and other crops are the main aims of this department. Determination of the type of machinery and equipments and the manufacturing of the spare parts for these implements are also under this department’s responsibility.
Departments and their activities in this division are given below.
3.1.7. Department of Field Experiments and Statistics
The fields are prepared for the experiments of the other departments by the Field Experiments and Statistics Department. This department lays out, sets up the experiments, takes care of the plants during the growing season, harvests and analyses them. The recommendations for the experimental designs to other departments while they are planning a new project are given by this department. This statistical evaluation of the results of the experiments is also done by this department. The management of the experiment stations and the production of other field crops because of rotation in the experiment stations are the responsibilities of the department.
Departments and their activities in this division are given below.
3.2.1. Department of Analytical
This department works on the development of the physical and chemical analysis methods used in process control and quality control and provides the uniform methods to be applied in the sugar factories process control laboratories. Quality control of products, by-products and exported products are done in this department. This department also gives aid to the General Directorate on the supply of process chemicals and their control.
3.2.2. Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Engineering
This department conducts the work on decreasing the unknown sugar losses caused by bacteria and to minimize the amount of water used in sugar factories. Research on the development of wastewater treatment technology and the biotechnological utilization of by-products are also done in this department.
3.2.3. Department of Energy Economy and Corrosion
The main goal of this department is to minimize the energy consumption of the factories. For this purpose new systems are developed and adaptation works are carried out.
3.2.4. Department of Processing Techniques Department
This department works on the development of new technologies for the purpose of increasing product yield and quality. It does the investigations on the application of current technologies to Turkish Sugar Factories.
This service performs the duities in accordance with the rules and decisions taken by the Board of the Company and by the General Directorate, keeps the accounting business of the Institute, rules and coordinates the financial business according to the policy of the sugar industry and makes the annual budgets for the Sugar Institute.
Legal rights of the institute personnel are kept by this service according to the rules, regulations and the decisions taken by the Board of the Company. ESTABLISHMENTS OF THE
Sugar Institute is located in the west of Ankara, 17 km far from downtown on the Ankara-Ayaş high-way. It has three main buildings and subsidiary units such as greenhouses, garage, cafeteria, warehouses, workshops for the Agricultural Mechanization and the Mechanical Construction Departments and confectionary Unit. Location chart of the Institute is attached.
Area on which the Institute located is 9000 m2, the greenhouses cover an additional 2000 m2.
There are ten greenhouses of which are used by the Entomology, the Agricultural Chemistry and Soils, the Phytopathology and the Plant Breeding Departments
There are also four field experiment stations where field experiments and plant breeding studies are conducted. The location and size of each field experiment station are given in
Table 1. Field Experiment Stations of the Sugar Institute
Location Area (ha)
Etimesgut 44,3
Eskişehir 35,0
llgın 100,0
Hasankale 6,0
Total 185,3
All the agricultural field trials are carried out in these experiment stations. Some regional experiments are done in the farms hired from the farmers.
Library and documentation center is organized in order to meet the needs of domestic and foreign literature of the Institute. At the library there are about 4500 books in the field of beet and sugar